These spores are spread by wind and rain to newly developed leaves where they germinate and invade the tender tissues, initiating primary infection. On the nuts, scab lesions [scab1] appear as small black dots which become sunken with age. DISEASE: Pecan scab PATHOGEN: Fusicladium effusum (former names include Fusicladosporium effusum, Fusicladium caryigenum, Cladosporium caryigenum, and Cladosporium effusum) HOST AND RANGE: Host species include pecan (Carya illinoinensis) and other Carya species, … Although cultural practices are followed, a protec-tive fungicide is required in some locations and on scab-suscepti-ble cultivars. However, before commercial growers and homeowners begin putting trees in the ground, they must consider their fungicide spray options to manage scab disease. The fungus girdles the trunk near the soil line. The disease symptoms first appear on the under surface of mature leaves in early summer as small, olive-green, velvety spots. The disease has not been observed to cause significant economic losses in Texas. Pecan cultivars Alphabetic Search by Cultivar Name 'Osage' Orig. Pecan Scab, a disease cased by the fungal pathogen Fusicladium effusum, can drastically reduce nut yield. Fungicides applied as a foliar spray on young trees can prevent pecan scab. Weak trees, old foliage – Leaf blotch (Fungus – Mycosphaerella dendroides) occurs mainly in trees of poor vigor. The first spray should be applied after pollination when the tips of the nutlets have turned brown, and the second spray application should be made 3 to 4 weeks later. The only spraying I ommited was for pecan husk scab. Pink mold rarely occurs on the shucks of nuts in the absence of scab disease. Lesions of vein spot disease develop on the veins or petioles of leaves and are usually less than 1/4 inch in diameter and are characteristically dark brown to black. Scab disease development is favored by rainy periods and cloudy days when the leaf surfaces are wet. Severely infested nuts on highly scab-susceptible varieties fall or fail to develop, resulting in … Chemical control is not recommended at this time. alba) by Winter (1885) as F. effusum Wint. ARS researchers in College Station, Texas, evaluated Nacono's performance beginning in 1986. F: Days receiving measurable rainfall ratio on pecan scab severity. Moneymaker and Stuart varieties are most susceptible to downy spot disease although all pecan varieties are moderately to slightly susceptible. – Infected twigs are covered with small, raised pustules with black centers. Contact your county agent or the USDA Pecan Breeding Program for the most recent information. Pruning These lesions may enlarge and coalesce, or come together, enveloping the entire leaflet and causing the leaflet to … Please tell me how I can fix this problem so that we may have a crop to enjoy this year. The fungus has been observed causing the most damage in the West Cross Timbers and on the ‘Burkett’ variety. The green covering around the nut gets black spots on them. Fungicides applied for scab plus orchard sanitation will help reduce losses due to this disease. – Downy spot (Foliage loss, Stuart) Symptoms include black lesions and tissue death on twigs, leaves, and nuts from early spring until late summer (Fig. scab in the low-mid canopy (≤35 ft) • Above 40 ft, there was no significant effect of fungicide on scab severity 30 Treatment <15.0 ft Tree height Vertical distribution of scab in the pecan canopy 15-25 ft 25-35 ft 35-40 ft >40 ft August 15 Within each column of charts, bars with the different letters are significantly different (P=0.05). Once the fall rains begin, the fungus is washed off the shuck leaving only the dead epidermal cells of the shuck. Native and improved pecan trees are grown commercially on about 70,000 acres in Texas. Replanting is not recommended in those sites where trees have been lost to this fungus. Black pustules, drought – Fungal twig die back (Fungus – Botrydiplodia sp.) This results in what is known as “pops.” The shucks turn black at the tip and open in a normal manner, but no kernel is formed. When the tree is severely affected, it should be destroyed to protect nearby healthy trees from infection. One to three several treatments at 10- to 14- day intervals formulations) are needed for heavy weevil infestations. Some pecan scab resistant cultivars recommended for the home planting include Amling, Adams 5, Miss L, Prilop, Kanza, Headquaters, and Gafford. The fungus produces a great abundance of spores on the surface of these primary infection sites and become visible to the naked eye within 7 – 9 days depending and then spreads throughout the trees infecting young shoots, leaves, and nuts [scab3]. Scab is a fungal disease that attacks both nuts and leaves. An effective control for cotton root rot disease has not been developed. Pecan Scab Control. Pecan scab is by far the most serious challenge facing pecan production in Georgia. The shape of lesions may be circular or irregular, especially where two or more lesions develop adjacent to one another. The El Paso area will have one in May or June and another in late August. 12). In central Texas, it may begin at budbreak or may be delayed until the prepollination spray depending upon the weather. Regional disease pressure – The environment within an area will determine how effective the scab resistance will be within that area. Texas Pecan Handbook. Tested by Auburn University, Mississippi State University and the University of Georgia. Johnson, Jerral D.; McEachern, George Ray (Texas Agricultural Extension Service, 1997) Primary lesions develop on the lower leaf surfaces as small dots which gradually enlarge and become reddish-brown with a grayish cast. Pecan scab Scab fungus (Cladosporium caryigenum) invades young, rapidly growing shoots and leaves [clad2] and later the developing nuts [clad1]. – Fungal leaf scorch (Defoliation, susceptible varieties, leaf curling) Pecan trees are prone to fungus diseases such as scab, powdery mildew, crown gall and wood or heart rots, according to the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. A single application of fungicide when the disease is first detected is usually sufficient to control Articularia leaf mold disease. Domestication of pecan began in the late 1800’s and much genetic potential remains to be capitalized upon. Coverage means getting fungicide applications evenly dispersed throughout the trees to cover as much of the stem, leaf, and nut tissue as possible. Lesions usually begin as a small black spot, just 1 to 8 millimeters in size. Also, look for adapted varieties that are less susceptible to pecan scab, a serious fungal disease that attacks leaves and nuts. 3). Forced ventilation in storage is recommended. Diseased plants can be submitted for disease identification to the Texas A&M Plant Disease Diagnostic Lab at https://plantclinic.tamu.edu/. Because rain and high humidity increase scab infection, pecan scab is more severe in Central and East Texas. – Air circulation This website is a resource for information about pecan-related insects and pests that affect pecans in Texas. The long cycle time for pecan trees plus financial considerations dictate that new varieties go through an extensive vetting process before being widely planted. Pecan scab is the most economically important disease of pecan in the southeastern U.S. and can significantly impact the amount of quality pecans produced in a season. LJ Grauke , Research Horticulturist & Curator USDA-ARS Pecan Genetics Route 2 Box 133 Somerville, TX 77879 tele: 409-272-1402 fax: 409-272-1401 e-mail:email@example.com. Based on preliminary studies, it appears that this problem will be most severe during years of heavy production and low moisture. The rate of disease development is slow enough to take steps to stop the disease after it begins to show up in an area but before significant losses occur. Signs/Symptoms Pink mold will develop on nuts that are infected with the pecan scab fungus. 3). No control is suggested at this time except sanitation and to carry out normal disease control programs and maintain adequate moisture around trees. How do I get rid of it? Diseases are controlled with a variety of practices. Trees affected with bunch disease show the bunching symptom caused by excessive growth of slender succulent twigs from lateral buds that normally remain dormant on the main limbs. Premature defoliation will occur. Thus, although it appears to be causing considerable damage, no significant yield losses can be attributed to the presence of the fungus. When the disease is severe, infected leaflets are killed causing defoliation of the trees in late summer or early fall and resulting in reduced tree vigor and increased susceptibility to invasion by other pathogens. Losses to this fungus can be reduced, but complete eradication has not been achieved. Disk under old fallen leaves in early spring before leafbuds begin to swell. With age, the reddish-brown area becomes a dull brown with small black spots scattered over the lesions. Based on work in Georgia, 70 degree F appears to be the lower temperature limit at which spores are formed. Early season defoliation often occurs in seasons of frequent rains and high humidity which facilitates the rapid development and spread of the scab fungus. Plant tissues are most susceptible when young and actively growing. Shallow disking or removal of the old plant debris will help to reduce the amount of fungal pathogens and insects present in a grove. If you plant scab disease-resistant varieties, you may need to treat only for insects. before rainfall with regard to pecan scab disease and several of the fungal foliar diseases). The downy character of lesions is due to production by the fungus of thousands of minute spores on the surface of each spot. This infection often resembles pecan scab lesions. Pecan scab is the name for the disease associated with Fusicladium effusum. Resistant to scab, downy spot and vein spot. Trees invaded by the cotton root rot fungus produce yellow foliage and become defoliated. (even susceptible cultivars like Wichita can be planted). Insect and vertebrate pests Major insect pests on native pecans are pecan nut casebear-ers, hickory shuckworms, stink bugs, and weevils. Venturia effusa is a fungal plant pathogen that causes pecan scab. Figure 3. pecan scab (Venturia effusa ) (G. Winter) Rossman & W.C. Allen 2016 by Clemson University – USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, Bugwood.org (CC BY 3.0). little scab on the nuts and rainfall is sparse. Primary scab lesions commonly occur on or along the leaflet veins but may be found between the veins. The Problem A problem that researchers face in the field is categorizing the infection level of pecan Pecan Scab. Symptoms include black lesions and tissue death on twigs, leaves, and nuts from early spring until late summer (Fig. and B.D. Although it causes weakening of the tree when it affects the lateral root system, it does the most damage when the main branch roots and the trunk are affected. The cultivar ‘Pawnee’ is less susceptible to aphids than most others and ‘Cheyenne’ is quite susceptible resulting in greater concern about aphids on this variety. For diseases on pecan trees, begin spraying Benlate for control of scab. Last line of defense A thin film of the fungicide prevents the scab fungus from developing by killing spores before they can invade susceptible tissues. Make sure to remove as many roots as possible. We have dozen new varieties that might be the variety of the future but who will it be. Pecan varieties vary in their susceptibility to scab disease. Pecan scab (Cladosporium caryigenum) Life cycle The scab fungus overwinters as a small, tight mat of fungal material called a "stroma" on shucks, leaf petioles and stems infected the previous season. Leaf veins, brown lesions, defoliation – Vein spot (Fungus – Gnomonia nerviseda) – Similar to leaf lesion symptoms of scab fungus, but fungus which causes vein spot, unlike the scab fungus, affects only the leaves. Benomyl type fungicides have been the most effective. The inner portion of the lesion will be crusty in appearance. Also during this period, the leaves and nutlets are immature and most susceptible to the pecan scab fungus. The following 8-spray fungicide schedule is provided as an example of one option to use for pecan scab management in light of the emerging scab insensitivity issues surrounding some of our fungicides. 11-11:30 a.m. – Pecan scab and bacterial leaf scorch update, Young-ki Jo, Ph.D., AgriLife Extension specialist in plant pathology and microbiology, College Station. Although viruses have not been shown to occur on pecans, it is suspected that with time and closer observation some of the problems involved with obtaining maximum production may be a result of a viral infection. 2132 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-2132; AgriLife Bookstore. Continue applica- tions on a 14-day interval as long as weather conditions favor infection. This also reduces black pecan aphid problems. Comparison of different areas of Texas using days above 90 deg. There is no known effective control for bunch disease. Late season, defoliation, weak trees – Brown leaf spot (Fungus – Cercospora fusca) affects only mature leaves [brwnlfsp] and usually does not appear until mid-June or July. For example, resistance can delay the occurrence of scab during periods of inclement weather when spraying is not possible. Primary infection of new leaves in the spring occurs from spores produced in old, overwintered leaves. Periods when pecan diseases are observed most often and when zinc can be used effectively1. Gary Veal, Technical Sales Agronomist with Plant Food Systems, Inc. says his company has worked closely with UGA and USDA researchers…Continue reading Therefore, thorough coverage of leaf, nut, and shoot surfaces with a fungicide must be maintained during the season to prevent secondary infections following rains providing wetting periods sufficient to allow germination and penetration. If used properly, fungicides can prevent significant losses to disease. When spraying, always check foliage to see if you are leaving a moist film on all of the foliage. – Resistant varieties Q: Each year I have a problem with my pecan tree that is now about 11 years old. Minor leaf disease, white tufts, weak trees – Articularia leaf mold (Fungus – Articularia quercina) occurs after rainy periods and on the leaves of weak trees. Air circulation Losses have been observed 13 years after planting. Variety of causal agents Although the ten year average gives a clue to scab occurrence at a critical time during the spraying season, it is not sufficient to use only this to determine when applications should be applied. In seasons favorable for brown leaf spot development, pecan trees may be completely defoliated within 3 to 4 months if the disease is not controlled. Fungicide Program Example for Managing Pecan Scab. The roots of the pecan tree are invaded and killed disrupting the transportation of water to the leaves. Scab fungus (Cladosporium caryigenum) invades young, rapidly growing shoots and leaves [clad2] and later the developing nuts [clad1]. – Powdery mildew (White powdery fungus, high temperatures, dry conditions) Pecan growers across Georgia and the southeastern US are taking a new look at phosphite fungicides for control of pecan scab and glomerrella. Based on work done in Georgia, Alabama, and Texas, the figure of 100 accumulated hours is used as a threshold level. Pecan planting is usually done during December and January when the trees are dormant. – Crown gall (Bacteria, weakened tree) Fungicides at budbreak will reduce the primary infections. Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostics Laboratory, Texas A&M College of Agrculture and Life Sciences. 'Jenkins' (Jenkins 1, Alabama Jenkins)(Nut Photo) 'Seedling selection of pecan grown from seed of unknown parentage planted about 1977 by Travis Jenkins, Rena Lara, MS. – Cotton root rot (Soil-borne disease, rapid death, fungus) Severely infected nuts [scab2] on highly scab-susceptible varieties fall or fail to develop, resulting in a total nut crop loss. Severely infected nuts [scab2] on highly scab-susceptible varieties fall or fail to develop, resulting in a total nut crop loss. This will allow for better movement of wind through the grove. Smooth, dark brown to black spots form on the vascular structures of the leaf which include: veins, midribs, petioles, and rachises. Growers should examine all nursery trees before planting. – Bunch disease (Mycoplasm, sucker growth) Crop sanitation – Kernel discoloration (Several fungi, insects, drying) Pecans should be dried before sacking. Pecan scab Losses to this fungus should not be confused with other drops that occur in the fall due to other pathogens and physiological problems. Resistant varieties should be planted which have a scab resistance level to ensure that over a ten year period they can be grown with little chance of significant crop loss. Pecan scab is by far the most serious challenge facing pecan production in Georgia. Pecan scab life cycle (Fusicladium effusum) Overwinters as conidia and stroma Epidemics build up on fruit (conidia) Autumn Winter Summer Spring Fungus becomes dormant as ‘stroma’ and overwintering conidia Epidemics build up on young leaves (conidia) Conidia from stroma infects young foliage early in spring . When the foliage is infected, it becomes slightly distorted and covered with a faint white, powdery substance. Symptoms of infection are similar on all parts of an infected plant. Most pecan varieties which are maintained in a vigorous state of growth are not as susceptible to this disease. Pecan scab is the name for the disease associated with Fusicladium effusum.It was first described from Carya tomentosa (=C. Experiment design and procedures • Cv. The most damaging fungal disease in the Central and East regions is pecan scab (Fig. The Texas A&M Department of Horticultural Sciences offers two undergraduate and three graduate degrees that prepare students for a myriad of diverse career opportunities.. Our mission is to: Overview Recommended for trial plantings on the basis of resistance to pecan scab and nut quality. For more information http://pecankernel.tamu.edu/diseases/#pink Cotton Root … Diseased trees die quickly after becoming infected. Later in the season, lesions turn brown due to the death of leaf cells in the disease area. ecan trees grow in many settings, including woodlands, parks, urban greenbelts, courthouse lawns, and thousands of home landscapes. P ecans are produced on about a million acres world wide and annual production usually averages 200 – 300 million pounds. Pecans (Carya illinoensis) are common as a shade and nut tree in the southeastern U.S., where they also grow wild in native bottomland forests. For assistance, contact your local office of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service or a certified arborist. Defoliation, susceptible varieties, leaf curling – Fungal leaf scorch (Fungus – several) – Although all varieties are susceptible to this group of fungi [funlfsc1], Shoshoni, Chickasaw, Cheyenne, Shawnee, and Stuart appear to be some of the most susceptible. Another reason to concentrate on insect control is the fact that pecan fungicides are available only in commercial-size packages. Scab disease is most damaging to pecan trees grown east of central Texas. It has also been associated with young trees at the graft union and on older trees where limbs are pruned out. My pecan trees have had pecan scab for some time. Pecan trees can still be found today growing wild in river bottoms, pastures, parks, courthouse lawns and thou- sands of residential landscapes throughout Texas. This family includes the walnuts and the hickories. Wichita is the most productive pecan grown in Texas and is ideally adapted to central and west Texas. White powdery fungus, high temperatures, dry conditions, immature foliage – Powdery mildew (Fungus – Microsphaera alvi) – When pecans become infected with this fungus [powmil], they appear to be covered with a white, powdery material. With warmer temperatures and rainfall in the spring, fungal spores are produced on the stroma. The pecan, Carya illinoensis, is a member of the plant family Juglandaceae. In susceptible cultivars, the foliage is vulnerable also to downy spot fungus. Domestication of pecan began in the late 1800’s and much genetic potential remains to be capitalized upon. In moderately affected trees, one or several branches will show the “bunch” growth symptom. Pruning to remove low hanging limbs can also help to reduce the disease build-up within an orchard. Currently, there is no control for this disease. Bacteria, weakened tree – Crown gall (Bacteria – Agrobacterium tumefaciens) – Infected roots have large, rough galls which may be several inches in diameter. Phosalone withdrawn from market in 1989. Poor air circulation slows down the drying of foliage and increases the potential infection periods within an orchard. Symptoms include black lesions and tissue death on twigs, leaves, and nuts from early spring until late summer (Fig. Do not allow pecans to lay on the ground for any length of time. Scab risk • Region – east to west gradient LA to CA • Site, Management – fungus life cycle • Variety – minimize susceptible, maximize resistant, diversity • Weather – frequent rains, mild temperatures • AU-Pecan (www.awis.com) ≥0.1” rains and % rain chance for 5 days; by variety scab resistance level Few native groves are sprayed for anything other than weevils and pecan nut casebearers. This can be controlled with foliar sprays of a fungicide applied at initiation of water stage and a second application 10 days later. Common diseases – Pruning  The average lost due to pecan scab in orchards was around $22 million back in 1998 , with the number only rising due to the increase in the amount of strains of pecan scab that carries resistances to the fungicides. Pecan scab is a common fungal disease of pecans. Wichita develops "V" limb angles that split and require careful training. The accumulation of hours begins at that time. Sanitation within the orchard is extremely important because many of the diseases and insects overwinter in old shucks, leaves, leaf petioles, and twigs. Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page. Lesions resulting from these infection sites become visible to the naked eye within 7 – 9 days depending on environmental conditions. Pecan scab Pecan scab is a common fungal disease of pecans. – Shuck die back ( Physiological, nut drop, variety reaction) Welcome to PecanKernel! diseases, especially pecan scab Current weather conditions Predicted weather conditions for next 1 to 2 weeks Status of disease pressure in and near the or-chard Commercial Pecans Controlling Rosette, Diseases and Zinc De˚ ciency Joseph P. Krausz and Thomas A. It is difficult for homeowners to properly manage pest problems so that large pecans can fill out properly. Diseases affecting pecans are caused by bacteria, fungi, nematodes, mycoplasm, and physiological problems. Hoefnagels, M.H. – Regional disease pressure If the rows are planted perpendicular to the prevailing wind, the outer rows will block movement to the inner orchard. The pecan is a large tree, often growing to 100 feet high or more and has a stately appearance. The use of fungicides will help reduce losses from these fungi. Scab is a fungus which invades the young rapidly growing shoots and leaves and later the developing nuts. The fungus [funlfsc2] causes premature defoliation in the fall. The scab fungus overwinters in infected shoots and in old shucks and leaves in the trees. Trees found to be infected with root knot should be removed. The pink mold fungus apparently enters nuts through scab lesions on shucks and continues to produce masses of pink spores on shuck surfaces until late fall. Table 1 shows the critical periods for scab development during the growing season. I have not had a pecan harvest yet! The spores are spread by wind and rain to adjacent leaves and to neighboring trees. The Pecan Scab Risk Assessment Map tool will not be operational in 2014 due to a lack of funds to maintain the integrity of the real-time data input/output processing required to continue to provide this service. (continued) Pecan weevil Carbaryl Refer to Treat areas with a history of pecan (Sevin® liquid, label. Previous histories for 2011-2013 provide a ”proof of concept” and can be made available for reference purposes. Trees which are invaded by the bacteria are more subject to stress factors due to their reduced root system. Symptoms include black lesions and tissue death on twigs, leaves, and nuts from early spring until late summer (Fig. If scab is controlled, pink mold will not be a problem. Other common diseases are downy spot, powdery mildew, shuck dieback, stem-end blight, and bacterial leaf scorch. These diseases are often difficult to diagnose and control. The pecan / p ɪ ˈ k æ n / or / p ɪ ˈ k ... Cultivars, such as 'Elliot', are increasing in popularity due to resistance to Pecan scab. Our warm, humid climate is ideally suited to the pecan scab fungus, which can devastate susceptible varieties when environmental conditions are favorable to the fungus. Copper sulfate is highly toxic to fruit trees such as peaches, plums, apricots and nectarines and to some ornamental plants. Resistant varieties Even as pecan harvest is under way across Alabama, soon it will be time to plant new pecan trees. Several other diseases can infest pecans, including bacterial leaf scorch, downy spot, powdery mildew, shuck dieback, and stem-end blight. Articularia leaf mold does not occur in trees or in orchards which have been sprayed for disease control. Early season defoliation often occurs in seasons of frequent rains and high humidity which facilitates the rapid development and spread of the … Apply zinc foliar sprays frequently at the beginning of the season. Scab risk • Region – east to west gradient LA to CA • Site, Management – fungus life cycle • Variety – minimize susceptible, maximize resistant, diversity • Weather – frequent rains, mild temperatures • AU-Pecan (www.awis.com) ≥0.1” rains and % rain chance for 5 days; by variety scab resistance level Those orchards in western Texas will probably not begin their sprays within that area. To determine when sprays should be applied within a specific year, the number of hours of 90% relative humidity occurring must be recorded and accumulated. by ... Ripens very early, about Sept. 11, at Brownwood, TX. – Honeydew sooty mold, Variety selection and fungicide applications. An irrigation system is recommended for all Wind and rain spread spores of the disease organism. For more information. Areas where unnecessary insecticide treatments are made tend to have more aphid problems. – Stem end blight (Water stage nut drop) Because rain and high humidity increase scab infection, pecan scab is more severe in Central and East Texas. Scab can be managed with fungicide sprays, but it is important to begin at budbreak (March) to prevent the infection. The fungus develops on the outside of the shuck and only feeds on the outer layer of plant cells. Honeydew sooty mold – The development of damaging populations of yellow aphids varies with the part of the country we are talking about. Control of pecan scab disease depends primarily on protection of tender leaf, nut, and shoot surfaces with application of an effective fungicide. Physiological, nut drop, variety reaction – Shuck die back (Physiological – possible hormone imbalance) is commonly associated with Success and Success hybrids. The fungicides labeled for control of pecan scab on bearing trees are not available in small quantities marketed for backyard trees. Pecans are susceptible to several foliage, fruit, and root diseases in Texas. Control is based on following a scab fungicide program with no special sprays. It is to control this primary infection that the bud break and pre-pollination sprays are applied. In humid east Texas, the accumulation of hours should begin at the budbreak application. FOliage of susceptible cultivars is suscepti-ble to downy spot fungus during this period. I have a water well 19 and a half feet deep. By removing the lower hanging limbs, air movement is encouraged beneath the trees, and this not only encourages drying but also facilitates better movement of the released spores away from the tree. – Fungal twig die back (Black pustules, drought) They do not fill properly due to the peduncle being girdled earlier. Overview In addition, Stem-end Blight, Shuck Dieback, Powdery Mildew, Downy Spot, Fungal Leaf Scorch, and other diseases can be damaging. For diseases on pecan trees, begin spraying Benlate for control of scab. The pecan scab fungus causes its first damage in the spring, when it … For registration information, contact Texas A&M AgriLife Conference Services at https://agriliferegister.tamu.edu/ or (979) 845-2604.
Influence Of Culture On Consumer Behaviour Examples, Upper Denture Problems, Elkay Lzs8wslp Parts Diagram, Fenugreek Seeds In Konkani, Dynaudio Confidence 50, Cast No Shadow Strumming Pattern, Bdo Epheria Frigate Upgrade, Accounting Manager Skills, Birthday Cakes For 10 Year Old Boy, Po4 3- Molecular Geometry, Here Is One Hand Wittgenstein, Stanford School Of Education,